LMI Glossary is the great source of economic and statistical
terminologies. You can find the meaning of the term by simply clicking on the
alphabetical letters inside the table below.
number of additional employees hired during a specific period, expressed as a
percentage of total employment.
The additions cover all types of employees, including both new and
rehired workers on either a permanent or a temporary basis.
a program that became law with the passage of the Equal Employment Opportunity
Act of 1972.
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 originally outlawed
discrimination in employment practices.
The 1972 law, later strengthened by executive orders, required employers,
labor unions, employment agencies, and labor-management apprenticeship programs
to make an affirmative effort to eliminate discrimination against and increase
employment of females and minorities.
Affirmative Action Plan refers to detailed written plans drawn up by an
employer for equalizing opportunity with respect to hiring, promotion,
transfers, wages and salaries, training programs, fringe benefits, and other
conditions of employment.
These plans include definite numerical goals and timetables for achieving
the total effective demand for the nation’s total output of goods and
– the total amount of goods and
services available from all industries in the economy.
– the sector of the economy concerned with the production, processing, and
distribution of agricultural products and farm supplies (machinery, fertilizer,
It also includes businesses that provide agricultural services (animal
husbandry) and economic agencies and financial institutions that serve
agricultural producers (credit institutions, marketing associations, etc.).
– Prior to bringing foreign workers into the
U.S., employers must demonstrate their attempts to recruit U.S. workers through
advertising, the State Employment Security System and by other means.
Other Nonagricultural Employment –
This includes self-employed, unpaid family workers, and domestics in private
Job Bank (AJB) –
a national job bank administered through the U.S. Department of Labor that
is available via the Internet.The AJB is linked to all state Employment Security Agency job banks as
well as to employer homepages
Labor Market Information System (ALMIS)
– This system provides comprehensive
economic and occupational data to job seekers, employers, students, counselors,
economic development staff and other users.
of Substantial Unemployment (ASU)
A specific geographical area, with a population of 10,000 or more, which is
defined in the JTPA legislation as being characterized by an average
unemployment rate of 6.5 percent or more for the most recent twelve month
a person who registers with a local Employment Security office to seek
employment or obtain employability development services.
Applicants remain “active” until they are placed in a permanent job
or in training or as long as they continue to actively seek services from a
local Employment Security office.
a sample based on the population of a geographic area; for example, all the
residents of a given county.
In the Standard Industrial Classification coding system, a unit that is
primarily engaged in performing services for other units of the same company
rather than for other companies or the general public. Examples of auxiliary
establishments are central administrative offices, research, development or
testing labs, warehouses, and power plants.
Average Annual Openings -- Annual number of
job openings expected in an occupation due to growth plus
The average annual wage is calculated by taking the total wages (payroll) and
dividing by the average annual employment.
Hourly Earnings –
hourly earnings are on a "gross" basis. They reflect not only
changes in basic hourly and incentive wage rates, but also such variable factors
as premium pay for overtime and late–shift work and changes in output of
workers paid on an incentive plan.
Weekly Earnings (CES/BLS-790 Program) –
average total money earnings in non-farm employment, during the survey week, of
production workers plus non-supervisory workers not in production including
overtime, paid vacation, and sick leave.
Weekly Wages (CEW/ES-202
average total money earnings in the survey week of all workers in employment
covered by unemployment compensation.
Back to top
– The Federal
Office of Management and Budget assigns numbers to all U.S. government survey
is the assigned number of the form used to collect data for the CES survey.
- a selected period of time, frequently one year (called a base year),
against which changes in succeeding years are calculated.
The relationship is usually expressed as “base year = 100”.
comprehensive data that are used as a basis for developing and adjusting interim
estimates made from sample information.
Most economic time series are estimates based on a sample trend made of
the best data available at the time.
The series are adjusted periodically as more data become available.
This periodic adjustment is a “benchmark revision”, and the
point-in-time for which the more complete data were available is the
Data are commonly referenced by their benchmark date, e.g. “data based
on a March 1995 benchmark”.
of Economic Analysis (BEA) –
Part of the U.S. Department of Commerce. A federal statistical agency
responsible for estimation of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Data from the
Current Employment Statistics and Employment Statistics-202 programs are used in
the GDP estimates.
of Labor Statistics (BLS)
- the U.S. government’s principal data-gathering agency in the field of
labor economics, particularly with respect to the collection and analysis of
data on manpower and labor requirements, the labor force, employment and
unemployment, hours of work, wages and other compensation, prices, living
conditions, labor-management relations, productivity, technological
developments, occupational safety and health, etc.
Practically all of the data BLS collects are supplied voluntarily by
workers, businesses, and government agencies.
Its chief publications include the Monthly
Labor Review, “Consumer Price Index”, “Wholesale Prices and Price
Indexes”, and “Employment and Earnings”.
Cycle – A pattern
of fluctuation in economic activity, characterized by alternate expansion and
contraction. In general, business activity expands with rising industrial
production, employment, prices, wages, and profits. It reaches a high point of
prosperity and remains there for a time. Then activity begins to contract, with
business volume receding, and production, employment, prices, etc., declining
for a time until a low point is reached. After a time, recovery begins and
business activity expands again. Economists distinguish four phases, known by
various names: 1) expansion (prosperity boom), 2) contraction (crisis,
recession, slump, downturn), 3) depression (trough, bust, crash, bottom), 4)
recovery (revival, upturn).
Back to top
– the means of production including factories, office buildings, machinery,
tools, and equipment; alternatively, it can mean financial capital, the money to
acquire the foregoing and employ land and labor resources.
– A census is a complete count or enumeration (as opposed to a
sample or an estimate) of a specified population or some other characteristics
in a given area (housing, industry, etc.).
Census Bureau or Bureau of the Census (BOC) – The
BOC is a bureau of the U.S. Department of Commerce. It conducts censuses of
population and housing every 10 years and of agriculture, business, governments,
manufacturers, mineral industries, and transportation at five-year intervals. It
also conducts the Current Population Survey (CPS) for the Bureau of Labor
Census Tracts – A small, relatively
permanent statistical subdivision of a county delineated by a local committee of
census data users for the purpose of presenting data. Census tract boundaries
normally follow visible features, but may follow governmental unit boundaries
and other non-visible features in some instances; they always nest within
counties. Designed to be relatively homogeneous units with respect to population
characteristics, economic status, and living conditions at the time of
establishment, census tracts average about 4, 000 inhabitants. They may be split
by any sub-county geographic entity.
Labor Force - the non-institutionalized portion of the population age
sixteen and older that is employed or actively seeking employment.
Labor Force Participation Rate
–the proportion of the civilian non-institutional population that is
actively participating in the civilian labor force.
of Worker – There are three classes of workers: 1) wage and salary
workers who receive wages, salary, commission, tips, or pay in kind from an
employer; 2) self-employed people who work for profit or fees in their own
business, profession, or trade, or on their own farms; and 3) unpaid family
workers who work without pay for 15 or more hours a week on a farm or in a
business operated by a household member to whom they are related by birth,
marriage, or adoption.
a process by which decisions regarding the wages, hours, and conditions of
employment are determined by the interaction of workers acting through their
unions and employers.
Statistical Area – A labor market area representing two or more
adjacent micropolitan and/or metropolitan statistical areas in any combination
Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA)
- a large metropolitan statistical area with a population of one million
or more, which is subdivided into two or more primary metropolitan statistical
Price Index (CPI) – A statistical measure of changes in the prices
of a representative sample of urban family purchases relative to a previous
Adjustment (COLA) –
a frequently used provision of labor contracts that grants wage increases based
on changes in the consumer price index; often referred to in negotiations as the
- employment by an employer who reports wage and tax information to OESC
as required by law.
In Oklahoma, some of those employed in agriculture, some employed
students, as well as the self-employed, those employed by religious
organizations, fully commissioned real estate brokers and insurance sellers, and
elected and appointed officials are not covered in significant numbers.
Employment Statistics (CES)
- estimates of non-farm wage and salary employment and production
workers’ hours and earnings by industry.
They are produced monthly in cooperation with the Bureau of Labor
Statistics as part of a nationwide program for each state and Metropolitan
Statistical Area (MSA) from a sample of employing establishments.
Population Survey (CPS)
- a monthly household survey of the population of the United States,
which is the data source for the national estimates of the labor force
is conducted by the Bureau of the Census.
Approximately 1,025 Oklahoma households are surveyed.
Nationwide the number is approximately 70,000.
- an industry whose sales and profits reflect, to a great extent, the ups
and downs of the business cycle.
Practically all of the capital goods industries (steel, machine tools,
etc.) are cyclical because a moderate decline in demand may eliminate the demand
for the capital goods needed to make the product.
Unemployment that is caused by periodic declines in business activity that give
rise to inadequate demand for workers in the economy.
Back to top
– As specified by the Labor Market Information contract, any
product required to be delivered by the states to the BLS is generically called
Department of Labor (DOL) – A
Cabinet-level agency that enforces laws protecting workers, promotes
labor-management cooperation, sponsors employment training and placement
services, oversees the unemployment insurance system, and produces statistics on
the labor force and living conditions.
Deregulation – The process of eliminating
government regulations and reducing the scope and power of regulatory bodies.
Disaggregate – To divide a statistic into
its component parts
- people who want to work but have made no attempt to find work in the
last four weeks because they felt they could not find work.
Discouraged workers are not counted among the unemployed or in the labor
the amount of after-tax income that households have available for consumption or
the process in which a business firm increases the variety of products it
produces and sells, either by introducing new products into the same product
line or market, or by going into new product lines or markets.
- an occupational classification system based on both the nature of the
work performed and the demands of such work activities upon the workers.
These indicators of work requirements include eight separate
training time, aptitudes, interests, temperaments, physical demands,
working conditions, work performed, and industry.
The U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration
publishes these codes in the Dictionary of
- items with a normal life expectancy of three years or more.
Automobiles, furniture, household appliances, and mobile homes are
Because of their nature, expenditures for durable goods are generally
Consequently, durable goods sales are the most volatile component of
Back to top
wages, salaries, and other employee compensation plus earnings from
- a set of related equations used to analyze economic data through
mathematical and statistical techniques. Such
models are devised to depict the essential quantitative relationships that
determine the behavior of output, income, employment, and prices.
Econometric models are used for forecasting, for estimating the likely
quantitative impact of alternative assumptions (including those pertaining to
government policies), and for testing various theories about the way the economy
An increase in the production capacity of the economy.
- a statistical series that has been found to fairly and accurately
represent changes in business conditions. There
are three major groups of economic indicators that demonstrate a consistent
relationship to the timing of general business fluctuations:
Leading indicators signal in advance a change in the basic pattern
of economic performance. Examples
are new orders for durable goods, construction contracts, formation of new
business enterprises, hiring rates, and the average length of the workweek.
These indicators move ahead of turns in the business cycle.
For this reason, they provide significant clues to future shifts in
the general direction of business activity.
Coincident indicators measure current economic performance.
Their movements coincide roughly with total economic activity.
Gross Domestic Product, industrial production, personal income,
employment, unemployment, wholesale prices, and retail sales are examples.
such as capital expenditures and consumer installment debt, usually move up
or down after general business activity has altered its course.
(Economic indicators appear in Business
Conditions Digest, a monthly publication of the U.S. Department of
- a set of data collected over regular time intervals (e.g., weekly,
monthly, quarterly, annually), which measures some aspect of economic activity.
The data may measure a large grouping such as GDP or a narrow segment
such as auto sales or the price of copper.
and Training Administration (ETA) – A part of the U.S. Department of Labor. This agency oversees the state UI
programs and job training and placement services provided by state employment
– people work for pay or own their own business at any time during the
week, which includes the twelfth day of the month or if they work as unpaid
workers for fifteen hours or more in a family-owned business.
Persons who were temporarily absent from their jobs due to vacation,
illness, bad weather, strike, or personal reasons are also counted as employed.
Included in the employed group are those who are employed full-time (35
hours or more during the survey week) and those who are employed part-time.
Benchmark – a reasonably complete count of employment used to adjust estimates
derived from a sample. Adjustment
is usually done annually. The basic
source of benchmark data for the Current Employment Statistics program is data
collected from employers by state employment security agencies as a by-product
of the unemployment insurance (UI) system.
About 98 percent of all employees on nonagricultural payrolls are covered
by the UI system.
Cost Index (ECI) – measures the rate of change in employee compensation, which includes
wages, salaries, and employer’s cost for employee benefits.
The ECI was developed in response to a frequently expressed need for such
a statistical series. The ECI is
comprehensive in that it:
costs incurred by employers for employee benefits in addition to wages and
all establishments and occupations in both the private non-farm and public
sectors. It measures the change
in the cost of employing a fixed set of labor inputs, so it is not affected
over time by changes in the composition of the labor force.
by Place of Establishment (Location of Employment)
- data about jobs by place of work.
by Place of Residence
- data about people by place of residence.
- the estimate of the number of members of the labor force who worked for
pay or profit; or had a job from which they were temporarily absent because of
illness, vacation, labor dispute, or other reasons not reflecting a shortage of
work; or who worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in an enterprise operated
by a member of the family.
Population Ratio –
the proportion of the civilian non-institutional population that is employed.
indication of whether or not the individual is employed and the regular period
of time that the individual is employed.
Employment: The 40-hour week, except where fewer hours are normal
to the occupation, industry, or given employer, but on no account less than
30 hours per week.
Employment: Employment which does not meet the full-time
Employment Opportunity (EEO) –
fair employment laws prohibit discrimination and require the employer to provide
equal employment opportunity without regard to race, color, religion, sex,
national origin, age, disabling condition, or reprisal.
- Employment Service.
A federal/state cooperative program that collects and compiles employment and
wage data for workers covered by state unemployment insurance (UI) laws, and
federal by employers. These data are maintained in the state in micro and
macrodata forms, and also are provided to BLS. Any data from this program may be
generically referred to as “ES-202” data.
an economic unit, such as a farm, mine, factory, or store, which produces
goods or provides services. It is
usually at a single physical location and engaged in one predominant type of
economic activity for which a Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code is
– A numerical quantity calculated from sample data, or from a
model, and intended to provide information about a universe.
(X) – Domestically produced good or service sold abroad.
Extrapolate – To
project values of a variable in an unobserved interval from values within an
already observed interval.
Back to top
Fair Labor Standards Act –
the Federal Wage and House law adopted by Congress in 1938 that set a minimum
wage for most American workers.
It also mandates overtime pay beyond an eight-hour workday or over 40
hours a week.
(Frequently Asked Questions)
- FAQs are documents that list and answer
the most common questions on a particular subject. There are hundreds of FAQs on
subjects as diverse as Pet Grooming and Cryptography.
FAQs are time-saving tool developed by people who repeatedly answer the
Information Processing Standards (FIPS) – Standards for information processing issued by the National Bureau of
Standards in the U.S. Department of Commerce. Includes a numeric designation for
geographic areas such as states, counties, and metropolitan areas.
Federal/State Cooperative Programs – A
series of statistical programs in which the states and federal government
cooperate in accomplishing the goals of the program.
Finance, Insurance, Real Estate (FIRE) –
In the Standard Industrial Classification coding structure, a service
Firm – A business entity, either corporate
or otherwise. May consist of one or several establishments.
Fixed Costs – Production costs that do
not change with changes in the quantity of output.
Fringe Benefits – Non-wage returns to
workers for labor services; includes time off with pay for holidays, vacations,
and sick leave, retirement benefits, health care, and similar benefits.
The temporary joblessness that results from individuals who are between jobs,
engaged in seasonal work, have quit their jobs and are looking for better ones,
or are looking for their first jobs. This type of unemployment is usually short
term and is caused by the economy’s inability to match job seekers with jobs
Full Employment – A state of the economy
in which all people who want to work can find employment without much difficulty
at prevailing rates of pay. Some unemployment, both voluntary and involuntary,
is not incompatible with full employment, since allowances must be made for
frictional and seasonal factors that are always present to some degree.
Full-Time Employment – Generally includes people who worked 35 hours or more during the survey
week (week of the month that includes the 12th). Persons who worked between one
and 34 hours are designated as working part-time.
Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA) – This
Act became Chapter 23, Sections 3301-3311, of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code,
authorizing the tax imposed on employers with respect to people they employ for
the purpose of funding unemployment insurance benefits. The FUTA made possible
the federal/state system that established an employment security program in each
(File Transfer Protocol)
- a very common method of moving files between two Internet sites. FTP is
a special way to login to another Internet site for the purposes of retrieving
and/or sending files.
There are many Internet sites that have established publicly accessible
repositories of material that can be obtained using FTP, by logging in using the
account name anonymous, thus these sites are called anonymous FTP servers.
Back to top
Domestic Product (GDP)
- the market value of the output of goods and services produced by
property and labor located in the United
is a “gross” measure because no deduction is made to reflect the wearing out
of machinery and other capital assets used in production.
The GDP is a key measure of the overall performance of the economy and a
gauge of the health of important sectors.
Producing Industries –
In the Standard Industrial Classification coding structure (soon to be North
American Industry Classification System or NAICS), those industries that
primarily produce goods: mining, construction, and manufacturing.
Product (GNP) - differs from gross domestic product in that it
covers the goods and services produced by labor and property supplied
by United States residents.
(openings due to growth)
- Openings in occupation due to
industry expansion and the consequent need for additional workers.
Back to top
High Demand Occupation
- an occupation which has a substantial number of job openings both in
absolute terms and relative to the number of job applicants for that occupation.
High demand may be as a result of high growth, high turnover, or a
combination of both.
- Group I includes industries with a proportion of technology-oriented
workers (engineers, life and physical scientists, mathematical specialists,
engineering and science technicians, and computer specialists) at least 1.5
times the average for all industries.
Group II includes all industries with a ratio of research and development
(R&D) expenditures t O*NET sales at least twice the average for all
Group III includes manufacturing industries with a proportion of
technology-oriented workers equal to or greater than the average for all
manufacturing industries and a ratio of (R&D) expenditures to sales close to
or above the average for all industries.
Two non-manufacturing industries, computer and data processing services
and R&D laboratories, are also included.
– persons who identify themselves as Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban,
Central or South American, or of other Hispanic origin or descent.
In U.S. Census data, persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race; thus,
they are included in both the white and black population groups.
Conversely, MSAs data identifies Hispanic as a separate entity and does
not include their number in any other category.
As defined by the Census Bureau, all people who occupy a housing unit. A housing
unit is a room or group of rooms intended for occupancy as separate living
quarters and having either a separate entrance or complete cooking facilities
for the exclusive use of the occupants.
labor that is literate, skilled, trained, healthy, and economically motivated.
Back to top
Index of Leading Economic Indicators –
an index that includes 12 economic variables that have been found to have
a historical tendency to precede the turning points of the level of Gross
The index is a composite of those 12 indicators.
(M) – A good or service purchased from foreign suppliers.
Industry – A domestic industry that produces the same or a close
substitute good that competes in the domestic market with imports.
- a measure of the relative changes occurring in a series of values
compared with a base period.
The base period usually equals 100 and any variations from it represent
magnitude of change.
By use of an index number, volumes of data can be combined and weighted
into one number relative to the base value.
of Leading Economic Indicators –
An index that includes 12 economic variables that have been found to have a
historical tendency to precede the turning points of the level of Gross National
Product. The index is a composite of those 12 indicators.
an establishment or group of establishments engaged in producing similar types
of goods and services.
Clusters – Industry clusters are groups of competing, collaborating
and interdependent businesses working in a common industry and concentrated in a
geographic region. Clusters draw on shared infrastructure and a pool of
skilled workers and represent the specialization and comparative advantage of
the region. A synergistic effect is realized when successful companies
that focus on a particular industry then cluster locally.
(I-O) Matrix –
a tabulation of employment data cross-classified by industry and occupation,
arranged in a grid divided into rows and columns.
It provides a model representing the occupational, employment staffing
patterns of each industry for one point in time.
a continuously rising general price level, resulting in a loss of the purchasing
power of money.
Claim – a
notice filed by a worker at the beginning of a period of unemployment requesting
a determination of insured status for jobless benefits.
Unemployment – Unemployment
during a week for which waiting period credit or benefits are claimed under the
regular unemployment insurance compensation programs, supplemental extended
benefit programs, or the railroad unemployment insurance program, is considered
Unemployment Rate (IUR) – The rate computed by dividing insured
unemployment by covered employment.
Interpolate – To estimate values of a
variable between two known values.Java
- a new programming language invented by Sun Microsystems that is specifically
designed for writing programs that can be safely downloaded to your computer
through the Internet and immediately run without fear of viruses or other harm
to your computer or files. Using small Java programs (called
"Applets"), Web pages can include functions such as animations,
calculators, and other fancy tricks.
Back to top
Leavers – Job leavers are people who quit or otherwise terminate
their employment voluntarily and immediately begin looking for work.
Job Losers – Job losers are people on
layoff and those whose employment ended involuntarily and who immediately begin
looking for work.
A single job opening for which the One-Stop Career Center has on file a request
to select and refer an applicant or applicants.
Back to top
Demand – An estimate of the number of job opportunities which exist and will occur
over a given period of time.
Any controversy concerning terms or conditions of employment, or
concerning the association or representation of persons in negotiating, fixing,
maintaining, changing, or seeking to arrange term for conditions of employment,
regardless of whether or not the disputants stand in the proximate relation of
employer and employee.
Force – The civilian labor force comprises the total of all civilians age 16 or
older classified as employed and unemployed.
Force Participation Rate –
The proportion of the total civilian non–institutional population 16 years or
older, or of a demographic subgroup of that population classified as "in
the labor force."
Market Analysis – The measurement and evaluation of economic forces as they relate to the
employment process. There are many variables affecting labor, geography,
and demand–supply relationships, including such factors as population growth
and characteristics, industrial structure and development, technological
developments, shifts in consumer demands, volume and extent of unionization and
trade disputes, recruitment practices, wage levels and conditions of employment,
and training opportunities.
Market Area (LMA) –
An economically integrated geographical unit within which workers may readily
change jobs without changing their place of residence
Market Information (LMI) – LMI is a body of knowledge that describes the nature, characteristics,
and operation of those mechanisms, institutions, and participants involved in
the matching of labor supply with demand. LMI is made up of a variety of
economic, social, and demographic information that describes current conditions
and forecasts conditions at a future date. LMI includes data on
population, labor force, occupations, general economic trends, and careers and
has many planning uses. The information can be used to determine policy
and program needs, to allocate resources, and to establish program performance
Productivity – The value of goods and services in constant prices produced per hour of
Supply – The
number of persons employed and unemployed plus those that would seek employment
if they believed jobs were available. Generally, this term has been
applied to those who are unemployed.
Labor Surplus Area – This is defined under
the Defense Manpower Policy No. 4A as an area with at least 120 percent of the
national unemployment rate.
Statistics, Bureau of (BLS) –
the U.S. Government’s principal fact-finding agency in the field of Labor
Economics, particularly with respect to the collection and analysis of data on
labor resources and labor requirements, the labor force, employment and
unemployment, hours of work, wages and other compensation, prices, living
conditions, labor-management relations, productivity, technological
developments, occupational safety and health, etc.
Practically all the data BLS collects are supplied voluntarily by
workers, businesses, and government agencies.
Its chief publications include the Monthly
Labor Review, Consumer Price Index, Wholesale Prices and Price Indexes, and
Employment and Earnings.
from pay by the company for reasons such as lack of orders, plant breakdown,
shortage of materials, or termination of seasonal or temporary employment, etc.
Emploment Dynamics (LED) – LED is Local at the county
and sub county level - so that decisions can be made in the right context. LED
is Employment Information for workers in different industries, different age,
and sex groups. Allows the users information on where the jobs are and what the
earnings are. LED is
Dynamic information on the rapidly changing economy.
What industries are creating and destroying jobs and how much
turnover there is in each industry together with long-term trends.
Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) –
The federal/state cooperative program under which employment and unemployment
estimates for states and local areas are developed. These estimates are prepared
by state employment security agencies in accordance with Bureau of Labor
Statistics definitions and procedures. They are used for planning and budgetary
purposes, as an indication of need for employment and training programs, and to
allocate federal funds under the Workforce Investment Act (WIA), Federal
Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), etc.
is a measure of an area’s share – or the concentration – of activity as
compared to a larger geographic area. An LQ of one means that an area has
its share of activity and will likely be importing or paying lower-than-average
wages. An LQ of greater than one shows that an area has more than its
share of activity, is highly competitive, is likely to be exporting more than it
imports, and may have higher than average wages.
Back to top
– A single establishment or household (micro) data aggregated to any
level. Data at the estimating cell level and summary cell levels are all
macrodata. Compare to microdata.
- includes establishments engaged in
mechanical or chemical transformation of materials or substances into new
establishments, usually described as plants, factories, or mills,
characteristically use power driven machines and materials handling equipment.
The product of a manufacturing establishment may be “finished” in the
sense that it is ready for utilization or consumption, or it may be
“semi-finished” to become a raw material for an establishment engaged in
Layoff Event –
This is a layoff in which 50 initial claims or more have been filed against an
establishment during a five–week period, with the separations expected to last
longer than 30 days.
Mass Layoff Statistics Program (MLS)
– A Bureau of Labor Statistics federal/state cooperative program that
collects and publishes data on mass layoffs.
- obtained by adding all the observed values together and dividing by
their total number.
the middle value (or midpoint between two middle values) in a set of data
arranged in order of increasing or decreasing magnitude.
As such, one-half of the items in the set are less than the median, and
one-half are greater.
Statistical Area (MSA)
- defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB) based
primarily on commuting patterns data from the U.S. Decennial Census.
Generally, an MSA is a county or group of contiguous counties (or cities
and towns) with (1) a city of 50,000 or more population, or (2) a United States
Bureau of Census defined “urbanized area” of at least 50,000 in population,
provided that the component county/counties of the MSA have a total
population of at least 50,000.
Data reported from an individual establishment or household. Compare to
Statistical Area –
These areas have at least one urban cluster of at least 10,000 but less than
50,000 population. The areas also include adjacent counties having a
minimum of 25 percent commuting to the central county.
the minimum hourly rate of pay required by either federal or state law.
The state’s basic minimum hourly wage and federal minimum hourly rate
became $5.15 on September 1, 1997.
The Oklahoma Department of Labor is responsible for enforcing the
Oklahoma Minimum Wage Law.
- generally a person identified as a member of a race other than
Caucasian and/or a person of Hispanic origin.
- the most frequently occurring value in a group of values.
Like the mean, the mode is not influenced by extreme values in the group.
- persons who concurrently hold more than one job.
firm or reporting unit that consists of more than one establishment.
Back to top
Entrants – In the Current Population Survey (CPS), new entrants are
new workers looking for a job. They include students entering the labor market
after graduation from school and others who have not previously held a full-time
job lasting two weeks or longer.
- economic values expressed in current prices.
A general increase in prices will cause nominal prices to rise even if
there is no real change in the value (see real).
- items that generally last for only a short time (three years or less).
Food, beverages, apparel, and gasoline are common examples.
Because of the nature of non-durable goods, they are generally purchased
Wage and Salary Employment
- employment by place of work that does not include the self-employed,
unpaid family workers, or most agricultural workers.
This is a consistent economic time series allowing comparisons of
different labor markets over an extended period of time.
Non-manufacturing - encompasses all of the industries that are
not involved in the production of goods from raw materials.
Non-manufacturing industries include mining; construction;
transportation, communication, and public utilities; wholesale and retail trade;
finance, insurance, and real estate; services; and government.
Any error in the estimate other than the sampling error. Non-sampling error can
arise from the use of an inaccurate sampling frame, improper sample allocation
and selection procedures, poorly designed survey questionnaires, inaccurate data
clarification/verification techniques, inaccurate reporting or coding from
survey respondents, errors in estimation methodology, incorrect specifications,
human error in execution and validation, computer program errors, etc. It is
important to note that non-sampling errors also occur in censuses.
North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS)
– This industrial classification system groups establishments into
industries based on the activities in which they are primarily engaged. It will
soon replace the old Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system in the
United States, Mexico and Canada. NAICS was developed to provide a consistent
framework for the collection, analysis and dissemination of industrial
statistics used by government policy analysts, by academics and researchers, by
the business community, and by the public.
Not-in-the-Labor-Force – All people 16
years of age or older who are neither employed nor unemployed are considered
“not in the labor force.” Some examples are students, housewives, retirees,
Back to top
- refers to the unique set of tasks, skills, and abilities associated
with a worker performing a certain job.
Employment Statistics (OES)
- a program, which produces occupational data describing patterns in
major industries. Products of these
data include projections by occupation for use by educators and other
- describes an industry in terms of its occupational distribution.
For example, an occupational staffing pattern for the electrical
machinery industry would indicate how many of the workers in the industry were
employed as electrical engineers, electronics technicians, assemblers, etc.
Information Network (O*NET) –
A comprehensive database of worker attributes and job characteristics. As
the replacement for the Dictionary of Occupations Titles, O*NET will be the
nation's primary source of occupational information.
Staffing Patterns –
This concept describes an industry in terms of its occupational distribution.
For example, an occupational staffing pattern for the electrical machinery
industry would indicate how many of the workers in the industry were employed as
electrical engineers, electronic technicians, assemblers, etc.
Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) Program –
A federal/state cooperative program that collects detailed occupational
employment and wage data by industry.
Overtime hours represent the portion of gross average weekly hours which were in
excess of regular hours and for which overtime premiums were paid, as calculated
Career Center System
- an integrated system of service providers, which is designed to
streamline service and reduce duplication of service.
There are four main components of a One-Stop system including
universality, customer choice, integrated system, and performance-driven
outcome-based measures. Normally, a
One-Stop system implies co-location between One-Stop partners; however,
accessibility to information and services can be provided in other ways
including technology related methods such as the Internet.
The provision of Labor Market Information is an integral part of the
One-Stop framework as it allows users to make informed and educated choices.
Back to top
- employment of less than 35 hours per week.
Capita Personal Income
- total personal income divided by total population.
Capita Real Income –
individual personal income, mostly wages, stated in non-inflationary monetary
It is calculated by dividing the total national real income (or GNP) by
the population size.
- private and government wage and salary payments in cash and in kind,
other labor income, agricultural and non-farm proprietors’ income, interest,
net rent, dividends, and transfer payments less personal contributions for
social security insurance.
It is measured before the deduction of personal income taxes and other
of Residence – A
concept used to define labor force data where people are counted by where they
live, regardless of where they work. This concept is used to derive local area
unemployment statistics (LAUS) employment and unemployment estimates.
Place of Work – A concept used to define
employment where people are counted by where they work, regardless of where they
live. Current Employment Statistics (CES or total non–ag wage and salary
estimates) are derived from this concept.
Line – the family income level below
which people are officially classified as poor.
(Also referred to as Random Sampling) A sampling procedure that gives each of
the possible samples a fixed and determinate probability of selection or that
gives each unit on a sampling frame a fixed and known chance of being included
in the sample. Probability samples permit the calculation, from the sample data,
of measures of reliability for the estimates.
Price Index (PPI) –
replaced the Wholesale Price Index as the most important monthly measure of
prices at the wholesale level.
PPI is really three indexes one for producer finished goods, one for
intermediate, and one for crude commodities. The PPI usually refers to the finished goods index.
the group that covers employees, up through the level of working supervisors,
who are engaged directly in the manufacture of the product of an establishment.
Among those excluded from this category are persons in executive and
managerial positions and persons engaged in activities such as accounting,
sales, advertising, routine clerical work, and professional and technical
Back to top
Earnings – Earnings adjusted to reflect the effects of changes in
consumer prices. The deflator for this series is derived from the Consumer
Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers.
period of time usually lasting from six months to a year, marked by widespread
contractions in many sectors of the economy and a significant decline in total
output, income, employment and trade.
– In the Current Population Survey, people who previously worked at
a full–time job at least two weeks but who were out of the labor force for two
weeks or more prior to beginning to look for work.
Reference Week –
The week (Sunday through Saturday) for which data are collected. For the Current
Population Survey (CPS), Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS), Current
Employment Statistics (CES), and Employment Statistics (ES–202) programs, the
reference week is the calendar week including the 12th of the month.
– Widely used in statistics and econometrics as a method for predicting
the value of a dependent variable from known values of independent variables.
For example, it might be used to predict the output of certain production
workers (dependent variable) based on the results of testing them for mechanical
aptitude (independent variable). Simple regression analysis involves just one
independent variable; multiple regression analysis involves several independent
Replacement (openings due to replacement)
openings that arise from the need to replace workers who have changed
occupations or have left the occupation as a result of death, disability,
retirement, school or child rearing.
the inputs that are used in production including natural resources (minerals,
timber, rivers), labor (blue collar, white collar), and capital (machinery,
Back to top
– A fixed compensation for services paid on a regular basis,
generally on a weekly, monthly, or annual basis.
- a finite part of a statistical population chosen to be representative
of the whole population.
The properties of the sample are studied to gain information about the
- an error arising from the fact that it is not statistically possible,
short of a 100% sample, to select a sample, which corresponds perfectly to the
population from which it is selected.
As the size of a sample increases, the magnitude of the sampling error
Sampling error differs from other kinds of statistical errors in that it
occurs at random and is unbiased.
Non-sampling error, on the other hand, is error that can be attributed to
mistakes in data collection, tabulation, analysis, etc.
State Employment Security Agency.
– a statistical procedure that removes the month-to-month seasonal
effects from a data series.
Over the course of a year, the levels of employment and unemployment
undergo sharp fluctuations due to such seasonal developments as changes in
weather, the planting and harvesting of crops, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. Since these seasonal events follow a more or less
regular pattern each year, their influence on statistical trends can be
eliminated by adjusting the statistics from month to month.
The adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze
changes in economic activity.
- an industry in which activity is affected by regularly recurring
weather changes, holidays, vacations, etc.
The construction industry is typically characterized as seasonal.
describes an individual who works more or less regularly, but usually does so in
his/her own home or office.
This person is not listed on any establishment’s payroll.
The self-employed include many truck drivers, professionals (doctors,
lawyers, dentists, architects, consultants), and others who work on a
free-lance, assignment basis.
– Employment terminations caused by quits, layoffs, or other reasons
such as death, retirement, permanent disability, or transfer.
Series Break – An interruption in a
time series caused either by a change in definition or in methodology that makes
it improper to compare data from after the change with data from before the
Service Occupations, Service Industries, & Service
Producing Industries – Three terms often used interchangeably and
incorrectly. Each has a separate and distinct meaning:
to the category of jobs performed in and around private household; serving
individuals in institutions and in commercial and other establishments; and
protecting the public against crime, fire, accidents, and acts of war.
All industries employ workers in service classifications.
to establishments in that division of the industrial structure that renders
a wide variety of services to individuals and business establishments.
These industries, which employ workers in a wide variety of white collar,
blue collar, and service occupations, represent just one segment of the much
larger group of service–producing industries.
In order to assist in the evaluation of underlying economic trends, it is an
accepted practice to consider that the economy consists of two major parts:
the goods–producing sector (manufacturing, mining and construction) and
the service–producing sector. The latter includes transportation,
communication, utilities; trade; finance, insurance, real estate; the
service industries; and government. Accordingly, it is a
multi–industry group that is characterized by highly complex occupational
staffing patterns. In terms of white collar, blue collar and service
occupational or job classifications, the latter is the smallest group
Differential – An additional percentage added to the regular hourly rate for workers on
other than regular shifts, i.e., swing or graveyard shift workers.
Analysis – A technique to analyze the local economic base using the amount of change
in a local economy which is attributable to the changes in the larger area of
which it is a part; the industrial mix of the area; and the regional or local
Deviation – A measure of dispersion around the mean value of a
population. Frequently denoted by sigma. It is the square root of the variance.
The workweek for which employees receive regular straight–time salaries
(exclusive of paid overtime at regular and/or premium rates of pay).
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) –
(see North American Industry Classification System or NAICS).
Occupational Classification (SOC) – This
system will be used by all Federal statistical agencies to classify workers into
occupational categories for the purpose of collecting, calculating, or
disseminating data. All workers are classified into one of over 820
occupations according to their occupational definition. To facilitate
classification, occupations are combined to form 23 major groups, 96 minor
groups, and 449 broad occupations. Each broad occupation includes detailed
occupation(s) requiring similar job duties, skills, education, or experience.
Employment Security Agency (SESA) – A generic name for the State agency usually responsible for three
unemployment insurance (UI) program—UI tax collection, administration, and
determination and payment of unemployment benefits.
employment or job service program—an exchange for workers seeking work and
employers seeking workers.
market information —collection, analysis, and publication of information
on workers and jobs.
The data on economic variables; also the techniques of analyzing, interpreting,
and presenting data.
– A work stoppage by employees acting together in an attempt to
bring pressure on management to give in to their demands concerning wages,
working conditions, union recognition, or some other issue.
Unemployment – Long–term joblessness that results from changes in the kinds of workers
needed by the economy, either by skill obsolescence, competition from foreign
imports, or lack of training for the skills local employers require.
– The process used to collect data for the analysis of some aspect of a
group or area.
- the week that includes the twelfth of the month is used as a reference
period for most labor force data.
Back to top
Time Series - a
set of consistent economic quantitative data collected at periodic intervals.
(Most LMI is monthly, but weekly and annual data is published for some
- Number of job openings expected in
an occupation due to growth plus replacement
need over the projected
Communication, Public Utilities (TCPU) – In the Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) coding structure (soon to be North American Industry
Classification System or NAICS), a service-producing industry.
Trend – The long-term or overall movement
of a series over time. Any economic time series is assumed to be made up of
trend, irregular, cyclical and seasonal movements.
– The total movement of paid workers into and out of employed status in
an individual establishment. It is divided into two parts: 1)
accessions, rehires, and new hires and 2) separations and all employment
Back to top
workers who cannot obtain full-time employment or who are working at jobs for
which they are overqualified.
- a condition that includes both persons who are working part-time who
would prefer full-time work and persons working full-time in an occupation which
does not fully utilize their skills derived from prior training or experience.
the condition of those members of the labor force who did not work but were
seeking work or were awaiting recall from layoffs or the beginning of a new job
within 30 days.
This includes persons receiving unemployment insurance benefits, those
who have delayed filing for benefits but were eligible to receive them, those
who have applied for benefits but were not eligible to receive them, unemployed
workers who exhausted benefits in the current benefit year, unemployed workers
from employers not covered by unemployment insurance, and unemployed persons
newly entering or reentering the labor force.
Unemployment can be divided into four different types: frictional,
structural, cyclical, and seasonal.
Frictional unemployment is short term, encountered in searching for a job
or from a temporary layoff. Structural unemployment results from a mismatch
between the skill requirements
of existing job openings and the skills of those who are currently
unemployed. Cyclical unemployment results when the total demand for labor is
less than total supply of available workers.
Seasonal unemployment is sometimes considered as part of cyclical
It is the portion of unemployment resulting from lack of demand in
certain occupations due to seasonal patterns.
a program that provides cash benefits for workers who are unemployed
through no fault of their own and who are able to work, available to work, and
who are actively seeking work.
Eligibility to receive these benefits is set by law.
The program is financed through taxes paid into a trust fund by Oklahoma
employers for their employees.
- the number of unemployed persons expressed as a percentage of the labor
Unemployment Trust Fund – a fund established in the
Treasury of the United States which contains all monies deposited by state
agencies to the credit of their unemployment fund accounts and federal
unemployment taxes collected by the Internal Revenue Service.
Each state has a separate account in this fund.
States deposit Unemployment Insurance contributions into this account and
draw on the account to pay unemployment benefits.
- a geographical area where the population density is at least 1,000
persons per square mile.
– The entire population to be measured.
Back to top
Added - The difference between the value of a firm's sales and
purchases of materials and semi finished inputs.
– A mathematical measure of the dispersion of the values of a variable
around its mean. The variance may arise from a sampling of the population under
study, or may just measure the variability of population values around its mean.
The variance is denoted as sigma squared, s2.
Back to top
– Money paid an employee at relatively short intervals, often daily or
weekly, figured on an hourly or piecework basis.
and Salaries –
Wages and salaries consist of earnings before payroll deductions, including
production bonuses, incentive earnings, commissions, and cost-of-living
(Workforce Investment Act) - The
Workforce Investment Act is Public Law 105-220, signed into effect on August 7,
1998. It provides the framework for a unique national workforce preparation and
employment system designed to meet both the needs of the nation's businesses and
the needs of job seekers and those who want to further their careers.
Investment Areas - The
state of Oklahoma has been divided into 12 regions for which workforce
statistics are created and maintained for Workforce Investment Act planning.
Statistics - The
body of information that deals with the functioning of labor markets and the
determination of the demand for and supply of labor. It includes, but is not
limited to, such key factors as changes in the level and/or composition of
economic activity, the population, employment and unemployment, income and
earnings, and wage rates and fringe benefits.
Back to top